By Jon Cogburn
The state of California currently has about 38.8 million people living in it. This is about the same population as the least populous 21 states. Yet California only receives two seats in the United States Senate, while these other states collectively receive 42 seats.
The state of Wyoming currently has about 542,000 people living in it. Wyoming has around one seventieth of the population of California, yet their voters also receive two senators.
The Constitution of the United States was ratified in 1788. At this time Virginia (which then included what was going to become West Virginia) was the most populous state, with around 690,000 people residing in it. In the pre-Constitution Northwest Ordinance of 1787, which remained the basis for admitting new states, areas had to have at least a population of 60,000 people before being even candidates for statehood. So the thinking must have been that the undemocratic aspect of Senatorial representation should at most reflect a ten to one population disparity. I very much doubt anyone at the time envisioned states with populations the size of California's and the kind of disparity we have today.